Backed Up by Research
Backed Up by Research
NASA PEMF Study
NASA 4-year collaborative study on the efficacy of electromagnetic fields to stimulate growth and repair in mammalian tissues.
CHIEF INVESTIGATOR:Thomas J. Goodwin, Ph.D. Lynden B Johnson Space Center

When it comes to research studies, it does not get any better than NASA. Of more than 10,000 research papers and 2000 plus double blind studies on PEMF therapy; none was more thorough and conclusive as the 4 year NASA study lead by Dr. Thomas Goodwin, PhD, on the ability of PEMF to improve the growth and repair of tissues in mammals.
Without getting into technical details of the study, I will summarize and share the main benefits of PEMF therapy that the NASA study conclusively demonstrated as well as the exact type of energy, frequency, intensity and waveform used.
       1. Rapid Time Varying Waveform – Specifically the Squarewave (sawtooth also fits this criteria)
       2.  Low Frequency: 10 Hz (close to the frequencies of earth)
       3.  Low Intensity: ~10-200 milligauss (1 – 20 microtesla) which is even less than the strength of the earth’s magnetic field (33 – 66 microtesla).
Additionally NASA found that slowly varying (millisecond pulse, sine wave), non-varying (static magnetic) had little or no effect.

Directly from study on frequency and intensity (See Bottom of Pg 4 OF ACTUAL NASA Study – Pg 10 of Document itself):
A waveform (TVEMF) generator of original design and capability was developed and used to generate the waveform in a strength of 1-6 mA (AC) square wave, 10 Hz variable duty cycle, which was pulse-width modulated. NHNP cells were subjected to these extremely low-level magnetic fields (ELF waves) (~10 – 200 mGauss), which are far less than the field strength of the Earth.

Directly from study on intensity and waveform (See Bottom of Pg 12 OF ACTUAL NASA Study – Pg 18 of Document itself):
Initial results with the NHNP cells were quite startling, using extremely low-level magnetic fields (~10 –200 mGauss), below the magnetic field strength of the Earth itself (approximately 500 mGauss). We found the low-amplitude, rapidly time-varying magnetic fields exerted a very potent effect on the proliferation, morphology, and gene expression of the cells in culture, both in standard 2-dimensional culture plates (Fig 12) as well as cells organized into 3-dimensional tissue clusters (Fig 8) in the RWV.

This study is a landmark in proving the efficacy of PEMF therapy on human cells for healing, growth and regeneration, specifically the stimulation of neural stem cells. This research summary is of necessity somewhat complex, because of the complexity of the science. It is likely to be mostly of interest to those who have a scientific or engineering background. Nonetheless, this summary serves to highlight the impressive and in-depth scientific and engineering background that served as the basis for using PEMF therapy.
Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy, PEMT. How does it work?
All living cells within the body possess potentials between the inner and outer membrane of the cell, which, under normal healthy circumstances, are fixed. Different cells, e.g. Muscle cells and Nerve cells, have different potentials of about -70 mV respectively. When cells are damaged, these potentials change such that the balance across the membrane changes, causing the attraction of positive sodium ions into the cell and negative trace elements and proteins out of the cell. The net result is that liquid is attracted into the interstitial area and swelling or oedema ensues. The application of pulsed magnetic fields has, through research findings, been shown to help the body to restore normal potentials at an accelerated rate, thus aiding the healing of most wounds and reducing swelling faster. The most effective frequencies found by researchers so far, are very low frequency pulses of a 50Hz base. These, if gradually increased to 25 pulses per second for time periods of 600 seconds (10 minutes), condition the damaged tissue to aid the natural healing process.
Pain reduction is another area in which pulsed electromagnetic therapy has been shown to be very effective. Pain signals are transmitted along nerve cells to pre-synaptic terminals. At these terminals, channels in the cell alter due to a movement of ions. The membrane potential changes, causing the release of a chemical transmitter from a synaptic vesicle contained within the membrane. The pain signal is chemically transferred across the synaptic gap to chemical receptors on the post-synaptic nerve cell. This all happens in about 1/2000th of a second, as the synaptic gap is only 20 to 50 nm wide. As the pain signal, in chemical form, approaches the post-synaptic cell, the membrane changes and the signal is transferred. If we look at the voltages across the synaptic membrane then, under no pain conditions, the level is about -70 mV. When the pain signal approaches, the membrane potential increases to approximately +30 mV, allowing a sodium flow. This in turn triggers the synaptic vesicle to release the chemical transmitter and so transfer the pain signal across the synaptic gap or cleft. After the transmission, the voltage reduces back to its normal quiescent level until the next pain signal arrives.
The application of pulsed magnetism to painful sites causes the membrane to be lowered to a hyper-polarization level of about -90 mV. When a pain signal is detected, the voltage must now be raised to a relatively higher level in order to fire the synaptic vesicles. Since the average change of potential required to reach the trigger voltage of nearly +30 mV is +100 mV, the required change is too great and only +10 mV is attained. This voltage is generally too low to cause the synaptic vesicle to release the chemical transmitter and hence the pain signal is blocked. The most effective frequencies that have been observed from research in order to cause the above changes to membrane potentials, are a base frequency of around 100Hz and pulse rate settings of between 5 and 25Hz.
Lecture abstract Dr. D. Laycock, Ph.D. Med. Eng. MBES, MIPEM, B.Ed.
Beneficial effects of electromagnetic fields.
Selective control of cell function by applying specifically configured, weak, time-varying magnetic fields has added a new, exciting dimension to biology and medicine. Field parameters for therapeutic, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMFs) were designed to induce voltages similar to those produced, normally, during dynamic mechanical deformation of connective tissues. As a result, a wide variety of challenging musculoskeletal disorders have been treated successfully over the past two decades. More than a quarter million patients with chronically ununited fractures have benefitted, worldwide, from this surgically non-invasive method, without risk, discomfort, or the high costs of operative repair. Many of the athermal bioresponses, at the cellular and subcellular levels, have been identified and found appropriate to correct or modify the pathologic processes for which PEMFs have been used. Not only is efficacy supported by these basic studies but by a number of double-blind trials. As understanding of mechanisms expands, specific requirements for field energetics are being defined and the range of treatable ills broadened. These include nerve regeneration, wound healing, graft behavior, diabetes, and myocardial and cerebral ischemia (heartattack and stroke), among other conditions. Preliminary data even suggest possible benefits in controlling malignancy.
Bassett C. Bioelectric Research Center, Columbia University New York

EMF Protection
The beneficial therapeutic effects of selected low-energy, time-varying magnetic fields, called PEMFs, have been documented with increasing frequency since 1973. Initially, this form of athermal energy was used mainly as a salvage for patients with long-standing juvenile and adult nonunions. Many of these individuals were candidates for amputation. Their clearly documented resistance to the usual forms of surgical treatment, including bone grafting, served as a reasonable control in judging the efficacy of this new therapeutic method, particularly when PEMFs were the sole change in patient management. More recently, the biological effectiveness of this approach in augmenting bone healing has been confirmed by several highly significant double-blind and controlled prospective studies in less challenging clinical circumstances. Furthermore, double-blind evidence of therapeutic effects in other clinical disorders has emerged. These data, coupled with well-controlled laboratory findings on pertinent mechanisms of action, have begun to place PEMFs on a therapeutic par with surgically invasive methods but at considerably less risk and cost. As a result of these clinical observations and concerns about electromagnetic “pollution”, interactions of nonionizing electromagnetic fields with biological processes have been the subject of increasing investigational activity. Over the past decade, the number of publications on these topics has risen exponentially. They now include textbooks, speciality journals, regular reviews by government agencies, in addition to individual articles, appearing in the wide spectrum of peer-reviewed, scientific sources.
In a recent editorial in Current Contents, the editor reviews the frontiers of biomedical engineering focusing on Science Citation Index methods for identifying core research endeavors. Dr. Garfield chose PEMFs from among other biomedical engineering efforts as an example of a rapidly emerging discipline. Three new societies in the bioelectromagnetics, bioelectrochemistry, and bioelectrical growth and repair have been organized during this time, along with a number of national and international committees and conferences. These activities augment a continuing interest by the IEEE in the U.S. and the IEE in the U.K. This review focuses on the principles and practice behind the therapeutic use of “PEMFs”. This term is restricted to time-varying magnetic field characteristics that induce voltage waveform patterns in bone similar to those resulting from mechanical deformation. These asymmetric, broad-band pulses affect a number of biologic processes athermally. Many of these processes appear to have the ability to modify selected pathologic states in the musculoskeletal and other systems.
Bassett C. Dep. Orthopedic Surgery, Columbia University, New York. Crit Rev Biomed Eng
PEMF Medical Studies
ARTHRITIS
A study of the effects of Ganguly KS, Sarkar AK, Datta AK, Rakshit A. National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped (NIOH), Calcutta
Ganguly KS, Sarkar AK, Datta AK, Rakshit A. National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped (NIOH), Calcutta

A case of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia treated with Pulsing Electro- Magnetic Fields. 17-year follow-up
Ito H, Shirai Y, Gembun Y. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan. 

A double-blind trial of the clinical effects of electro-magnetic fields in osteoarthritis
Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Dyer RH Jr, Fielding LP, Miner WK, Markoll R. Department of Medicine (Rheumatology), Danbury Hospital, CT 06810

Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Markoll R. Department of Medicine, Danbury Hospital

Magnetic pulse treatment for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, double- blind, placebo-controlled study.
Pipitone N, Scott DL. Rheumatology Department, King's College Hospital (Dulwich), London, UK.

Hulme J, Robinson V, DeBie R, Wells G, Judd M, Tugwell P. Cochrane Collaborating Center, Center for Global Health, Institute of Population Health - University of Ottawa, 1 Stewart Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1N 6N5.

Modification of osteoarthritis by Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Field--a morphological 
Ciombor DM, Aaron RK, Wang S, Simon B. Department of Orthopaedics, Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02906,

Pulsed magnetic field therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee--a double-blind sham-controlled trial.
Nicolakis P, Kollmitzer J, Crevenna R, Bittner C, Erdogmus CB, Nicolakis J. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, AKH Wien, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Therapeutic effects of pulsed magnetic fields on joint diseases
Riva Sanseverino E, Vannini A, Castellacci  P., Universita di Bologna, Italy 
CELL REGENERATION
Effect of external Pulsing Electro- Magnetic Fields on the healing of soft tissue
Glassman LS, McGrath MH, Bassett CA.  Division of Plastic Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY.
Effect of Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Fields(PEMF) on osteoblast-like cells.
Glassman LS, McGrath MH, Bassett CA.  Division of Plastic Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY.
CIRCULATION
Microcirculatory effects of Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Fields
Glassman LS, McGrath MH, Bassett CA.  Division of Plastic Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY.
DEPRESSION
Influence of electro-magnetic fields on the emotional behaviour of rats
[Article in Russian] Semenova TP, Medvinskaia NI, Bliskovka GI, Akoev IG. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region, 142290 Russia
Combining high and low frequencies in rTMS antidepressive treatment: preliminary results
Conca A, Di Pauli J, Beraus W, Hausmann A, Peschina W, Schneider H, Konig P, Hinterhuber H. Departments of Psychiatry I and II, Regional Hospital, 6830 Rankweil, Austria
Effect of Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Fields (PEMF) on late-phase osteotomy gap healing in a canine tibial model
Inoue N, Ohnishi I, Chen D, Deitz LW, Schwardt JD, Chao EY. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins
Autoradiographic evaluation of electromagnetic field effects on serotonin (5HT1A) receptors in rat brain.
Johnson MT, McCullough J, Nindl G, Chamberlain JK. Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute, IN47809, USA.
DIABETES
EDEMA
Low frequency and low intensity Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Field exerts its antiinflammatory effect through restoration of plasma membrane calcium ATPase activity.
Selvam R, Ganesan K, Narayana Raju KV, Gangadharan AC, Manohar BM, Puvanakrishnan R. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Madras Veterinary College, Vepery, Chennai, India.
Protection against focal cerebral ischemia following exposure to a pulsed electromagnetic field.
Grant G, Cadossi R, Steinberg G. Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, California 94305
 GLAUCOMA
HEALING
Magnetic fields in physical therapy. Experience in orthopedics and traumatology rehabilitation
[Article in Italian], Borg MJ, Marcuccio F, Poerio AM, Vangone A

Therapeutic effects of electro-magnetic fields in the stimulation of connective tissue repair
Aaron RK, Ciombor DM., Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 00928
BONE HEALING
Pseudarthrosis after lumbar spine fusion: nonoperative salvage with Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Fields.
Simmons JW Jr, Mooney V, Thacker I.  UTMB, Galveston, Texas, USA.
Effects of static magnetic and Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Fields on bone healing.
Darendeliler MA, Darendeliler A, Sinclair PM. Discipline of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Australia
Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Fields for the treatment of bone fractures.
Satter Syed A, Islam MS, Rabbani KS, Talukder MS. Industrial Physics Division, BCSIR Laboratories, Dhaka.
Effects of pulsed magnetic energy on a microsurgically transferred vessel.
Roland D, Ferder M, Kothuru R, Faierman T, Strauch B. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
Exposure to pulsed magnetic fields enhances motor recovery in cats after spinal cord injury
Crowe MJ, Sun ZP, Battocletti JH, Macias  MY, Pintar FA, Maiman DJ. Neuroscience Research Laboratories, The Clement J. Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI 53295, USA. mcrowe@mcw.edu
SKIN WOUND HEALING
The influence of pulsed electrical stimulation on the wound healing of burned rat skin
Castillo E, Sumano H, Fortoul TI, Zepeda A. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of VeterinaryMedicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico, D.F
Effect of low frequency Pulsing Electro- Magnetic Fields on skin ulcers of venous origin in humans: a double-blind study
Ieran M, Zaffuto S, Bagnacani M, Annovi M, Moratti A, Cadossi R. Department of Medical Angiology, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy
Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Fields in experimental cutaneous wound healing in rats.
Patino O, Grana D, Bolgiani A, Prezzavento G, Mino J, Merlo A, Benaim F. Department of Postgraduate Reconstructive and Plastic
Effects of pulsed extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields on skin wounds in the rat.
Ottani V, De Pasquale V, Govoni P, Franchi M, Zaniol P, Ruggeri A. Istituto di Anatomia Umana Normale, Bologna, Italy.
Effects of magnetic fields on skin wound healing. Experimental study. [Article in Spanish]
Patino O, Grana D, Bolgiani A, Prezzavento  G, Mino J, Merlo A, Benaim F. Department of Postgraduate Reconstructive and Plastic Surgery, Universidad del Salvador and Fundacion del Quemado.
Effects of Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Fields on rat skin metabolism
De Loecker W, Delport PH, Cheng N. Afdeling Biochemie, Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven, Belgium.
HEMATOMA
Electrochemical therapy of pelvic pain: effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on tissue trauma.
Jorgensen WA, Frome BM, Wallach C. International Pain Research Institute, Los Angeles, California.
HYPERTENSION
[The treatment of hypertension patients with electromagnetic and magnetic fields].
Orzheshkovskii VV, Chopchik DI, Paramonchik VM, Fastykovskii AD, Kovalenko VP
LYMPHOCYTES
Effect of bioresonance therapy on antioxidant system in lymphocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Islamov BI, Balabanova RM, Funtikov VA,  Gotovskii YV, Meizerov EE. Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia
The effect of exposure to high flux density static and pulsed magnetic fields on lymphocyte function
Aldinucci C, Garcia JB, Palmi M, Sgaragli G, Benocci A, Meini A, Pessina F, Rossi C, Bonechi C, Pessina GP;Department of Physiology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
MIGRAINE
Initial exploration of Pulsing Electro- Magnetic Fields for treatment of migraine
Sherman RA, Robson L, Marden LA. Service of Orthopedic Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Wash. 98431, USA
Treatment of migraine with pulsing electromagnetic fields: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Sherman RA, Acosta NM, Robson L.  Orthopedic Surgery Service, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA 98431, USA.
Impulse magnetic-field therapy for migraine and other headaches: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Pelka RB, Jaenicke C, Gruenwald J. Universitat der Bundeswehr Munchen Munich, Germany
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
[Therapy of day time fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis].
Zifko UA.; Sonderkrankenanstalt fur Neurologie, Klinik Pirawarth, Kurhausstrasse 100, A-2222 Bad Pirawarth, Austria
Effects of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy on multiple sclerosis fatigue and quality of life: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial.
Lappin MS, Lawrie FW, Richards TL, Kramer ED. Energy Medicine Developments, (North America), Inc., Burke, Va., USA
[Effect of extremely low frequency (correction of frenquency) magnetic field on brain ischemic reaction in rats].
Zhao L, Wei J, Yan G, Wang Y, Huang Z, Zhao D.; Institute of Space Medico- Engineering, Beijing, China.
Theory of multichannel magnetic stimulation: toward functional neuromuscular rehabilitation.
Ruohonen J, Ravazzani P, Grandori F, Ilmoniemi RJ.; BioMag Laboratory, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
NERVE REPAIR
Pretreatment of rats with pulsed electromagnetic fields enhances regeneration of the sciatic nerve.
Kanje M, Rusovan A, Sisken B, Lundborg G.  Department of Animal Physiology, University of Lund, Sweden
Effect of Pulsed Electro-Magnetic stimulation on facial nerve regeneration.
Byers JM, Clark KF, Thompson GC. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA.
annaga A, Guo T, Ouyang X, Hu D, Lin C, Cao F, Dun Y, Guo Z. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030.Ito H, Bassett CA. 
Electro-Magnetic Fields influence NGF activity and levels following sciatic nerve transection.
Longo FM, Yang T, Hamilton S, Hyde JF, Walker J, Jennes L, Stach R, Sisken BF. Department of Neurology, UCSF/VAMC, San Francisco, California, USA.
Enhancement of functional recovery following a crush lesion to the rat sciatic nerve by exposure to Pulsed Electro- Magnetic Fields
Walker JL, Evans JM, Resig P, Guarnieri S, Meade P, Sisken BS. Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Shriners 
Hospitals for Crippled Children, Lexington.
Stimulation of rat sciatic nerve regeneration with Pulsed Electro- Magnetic Fields
Sisken BF, Kanje M, Lundborg G, Herbst E, Kurtz W. Center for BiomedicalEngineering, University of Kentucky, 
Lexington 4050
A multivariate approach to the treatment of peripheral nerve transection injury: the role of electro-magnetic Field Therapy
Zienowicz RJ, Thomas BA, Kurtz WH, Orgel MG. University of Massachusetts Medical School, Berkshire Medical Center, Pittsfield.
NEUROPATHY
OSTEOPOROSIS
Effect of a pulsing electromagnetic field on demineralized bone-matrix-induced bone formation in a bony defect in the premaxilla of rats.
Mishima S. Department of Orthopedic  Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields prevent osteoporosis in an ovariectomized female rat model: a prostaglandin E2-associated process.
Chang K, Chang WH. Department of  Biomedical Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, Republic of China
Bone density changes in osteoporosis-prone women exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs).
Tabrah F, Hoffmeier M, Gilbert F Jr, Batkin  S, Bassett CA. University of Hawaii School of Medicine, Straub Clinic and Hospital, Honolulu.
PAIN
Pain management and electromagnetic medicine.
Ouellette EA., University of Miami School  of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Florida, USA
Electrochemical therapy of pelvic pain: effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on tissue trauma.
Jorgensen WA, Frome BM, Wallach C.  International Pain Research Institute, Los Angeles, California.
Spine fusion for discogenic low back pain: outcomes in patients treated with or without Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Field stimulation

Sixty-one randomly selected patients who underwent lumbar fusion surgeries for discogenic low back pain between 1987 and 1994 were retrospectively studied. All patients had failed to respond to preoperative conservative treatments. Forty-two patients received adjunctive therapy with pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation, and 19 patients received no electrical stimulation of any kind. Average follow-up time was 15.6 months postoperatively. Fusion succeeded in 97.6% of the PEMF group and in 52.6% of the unstimulated group (P < .001).

Marks RA. Richardson Orthopedic  Surgery, Texas 75080, USA
PARKINSON'S
Magnetic fields in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Sandyk R, Anninos PA, Tsagas N, Derpapas  K. Democrition University of Thrace, Department of Medical Physics and Polytechnic School, Alexandroupolis and Xanthi, Greece.
PELVIC PAIN
Electrochemical therapy of pelvic pain: effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on tissue trauma.
Jorgensen WA, Frome BM, Wallach C. International Pain Research Institute, Los Angeles, California
RANGE OF MOTION
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of cervical osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial.
Ankara Physical Medicine and  Rehabilitation Education and Research Hospital, Turk ocagi S No: 3 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.
Therapy with pulsed electromagnetic fields in aseptic loosening of total hip protheses: a prospective study.
Országos Reumatologiai és Fizioterápiás  Intézet, Budapes, Hungary
Use of pulsed electromagnetic fields in treatment of loosened cemented hip prostheses. A double-blind trial.
A double-blind trial of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) for loosened cemented hip prostheses was conducted at two centers. Of the 40 patients who enrolled, 37 met entry criteria and were available for analysis. All patients completed six months of treatment (either active or control units). Success was determined clinically by a Harris hip score greater than or equal to 80 points (or an increase of ten points if initially greater than or equal to 70 points). Ten of the 19 active units were successes (53%), whereas two of the 18 controls (11%) exhibited a placebo effect, a statistically significant and clinically relevant result. A 60% relapse rate among the active successes was seen at 14 months poststimulation, and despite maintenance therapy of one hour per day, the relapse rate increased to 90% at three years. These data suggest that for loosened cemented hip prostheses, use of PEMFs is a treatment option to delay revision hip surgery.

Kennedy W. et.al. Theda Clark Regional Medical Center, Wisconsin. Clin Orthop

TENDONITIS
Pulsed magnetic and electromagnetic fields in experimental achilles tendonitis in the rat: a prospective randomized study.
Department of Orthopaedics and  Traumatology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on flexor tendon healing in chickens.
Robotti E, Zimbler AG, Kenna D, Grossman  JA. Miami Children's Hospital, USA.
VISION
[The effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma].
[Article in Russian] Tsisel'skii IuV,  Kashintseva LT, Skrinnik AV.
[Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in optic nerve atrophy. A preliminary study].
[Article in Russian] Zobina LV, Orlovskaia  LS, Sokov SL, Sabaeva GF, Konde LA,  Iakovlev AA
CANCER
 1. Exposure to Strong Static Magnetic Field Slows the Growth of Human Cancer Cells in Vitro
              Results of this study found that prolonged exposure to a 7-tesla uniform static magnetic field  for a period of 64 hours inhibited growth of three human tumor cell lines in vitro. 

R.R. Raylman, et al., Bioelectromagnetics, 17(5), 1996, . 358-363. 

 2. The Assessment of the Efficacy of the Effect of a Rotational Magnetic Field on the Course of the Tumor Process in Patients with    Generalized Breast Cancer

           This study examined the effects of a rotational magnetic field on a group of 51 breast cancer  patients. Results showed a significant positive response in 27 of them. 

N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., Sov Med, (7), 1991, . 25-27. 

 3.The Growth Dynamics of Walker Carcinosarcoma During Exposure to a Magnetic Eddy Field
       Results of this study indicated that exposure to a rotational magnetic field inhibited Walker's  carcinoma tumor growth as much as 90 percent in some cases. 
N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., Vopr Onkol, 37(6), 1991, . 705-708. 

 4. An Experimental Attempt to Potentiate Therapeutic Effects of Combined Use of Pulsing Magnetic Fields and Antitumor Agents
       Results of this study indicated that pulsed magnetic field stimulation increased the  incorporation of antitumor agents into cells, and thus increased antitumor activity shifting the cell cycle to a proliferative from a nonproliferative phase. 

Y. Omote,Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi, 89(8), August  1988, .. 1155-1166. 

 5. Morphological Criteria of Lung Cancer Regression Under the Effect of Magnetotherapy
        Results of this study found that 20-30 sessions of magnetotherapy administered preoperatively  exhibited antitumor effects in patients suffering from lung cancer. L.S. Ogorodnikova, et al., 

 Vopr  Onkol, 26(1), 1980, . 28-34. 

 6. Experience with the Use of Microwave Resonance Therapy as a Modifying Factor in Oncological Therapy
        This study examined the effects of microwave resonance therapy (MRT) in patients suffering  from various forms of cancer. Results showed that MRT treatment prior to surgery reduced the spread of cancer-associated conditions and reduced the risk associated with surgery in 87 percent of patients. MRT applied postoperatively had beneficial effects in 68 percent. 

(D.V. Miasoedov, et al., Abstracts of the First All- Union Symposium with  International Participation, May 10-13, 1989, Kiev, Ukraine, .. 313-315.  9 Peer Reviewed Scientific Studies From Pulse4Life.com )

 7. The Role of Complex Biophysical-Chemical Therapies for Cancer
         Results of this study proved that the combination of weak pulsed electromagnetic fields with antioxidant supplementation is beneficial in the treatment of patients suffering from tongue cancer, improving speech, pain control, and tolerance to chemotherapy. 

U. Randoll & R.M. Pangan,  Bioelectrochem Bioenerg, 27(3), 1992, . 341-346. 

 8. Radiomodifying Effect of a Constant Magnetic Field in Radiation Therapy of Patients with Cancer of the Throat
        Results of this controlled study indicated that treatment with a constant magnetic field significantly improved long-term (3-year) survival time in patients undergoing radiation therapy for cancer of the throat. Constant magnetic field therapy consisted of the application of 300 mT  for 30 minutes to tumor and metastasizing regions immediately prior to each irradiation. 

V.G. Andreev, et al., Fizicheskaia Meditzina, 4(1-2), 1994,. 92. 

 9. Anti-Tumorigenic Action of an Eddy Magnetic Field
         Results of this Russian study indicated that the use of whole body eddy magnetic fields, coupled with more conventional cancer therapies (including magnetotherapy) is effective in the treatment of patients suffering from a variety of different malignancies. 

V. Smirnova, Vrach, 2, 1994, . 25-26

 10. A Case of Successful Treatment of a Patient with Breast Cancer Using a Rotating Electromagnetic Field,
          This article reports on the case of a 48-year-old-woman with breast cancer who was treated  successfully with magnetotherapy. Infiltration showed a marked decrease following 30 whole body exposures to an eddy magnetic field for 60 minutes. One metastatic node disappeared  while the size of others was reduced following 60 such exposures. A total regression of tumor and metastases was seen following the completion of a course of 110 exposures. 

N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., Soviet Medicine, 8, 1991, . 86-87. 

 11.First Experience in Using a Whole-Body Magnetic Field Exposure in  Treating Cancer Patients

          This study examined the effects of whole body magnetic fields (16.5-35 G, 50-165 Hz) on  patients suffering from different forms of cancer. Treatment consisted of 15 cycles, each 1-20 = minutes in duration, and was coupled with more traditional cancer therapies. Results showed that the magnetotherapy had overall beneficial effects, particularly with respect to improved immune status and postoperative recovery. 

V.A. Lubennikov, et al., Vopr Onkol, 41(2), 1995, . 140-141
LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS
This review article examined the data concerning impulsed magnetic fields in the treatment of  lupus erythematosus. Studies indicate that the treatment can be beneficial due to its antiinflammatory  and analgesic effects, its positive action on microcirculation, and immunological  reactivity. 

I.V. Khamaganova, et al., "The Use of a Pulsed Magnetic Field in the Treatment of Lupus  Erythematosus," Ter Arkh, 67(10), 1995, p. 84-87. 

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of UHF and microwave  therapy in treating patients suffering from systemic lupus. Twenty-six patients were given 30- 35 W of microwave irradiation administered to the adrenal region. Twenty-five patients were  given 30-35 W UHF administered bilaterally to the temporal region. The treatment regimen for both groups included 18-20 daily sessions. A group of 11 patients were used as controls. 
Results showed both treatments to be effective, with 27 percent of microwave patients and 66  percent of UHF patients reporting total elimination of polyarthralgia, myalgia, and painful contractures. 

V.D. Sidorov & S.B. Pershin, "Immunomodulating Effect of Microwaves and Ultrahigh  Frequency Electric Field in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus," Bioelectrochem Bioenerg, 30, 1993, p. 327-330. 

Results of this study indicated that the bitemporal application of ultrahighfrequency  electromagnetic fields to the hypothalamo-hypophyseal area daily over a period of 18-20 days had beneficial effects in patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus. 

V.D. Sidorov, et al., "The Immunomodulating Effect of Microwaves and of an Ultrahigh-  Frequency Electrical Field in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus," Vopr Kurortol  Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (4), 1991, p. 36-40.
OSTEONECROSIS
1. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated by pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs): a preliminary report.
        This has been a preliminary report with a short-term follow-up of a small number of observations (28 hips of 24 patients). The follow-ups ranged from 6 to 36 months, with an average of 17.8 months. Only eleven hips (in eleven patients) were followed an average of 8 months after cessation of the treatment. It should be emphasized that this was a “pilot” study, in which no control series was used to determine the natural course of the disease in a comparable clinical setting. Of note was the pain relief, in 19 of 23 patients with moderate to severe pretreatment pain. Also there was an improved function, which suggests that at least in approximately two thirds of the patients there was some clinical benefit from this mode of treatment. In eight hips, clinical conditions did not change; and in two they worsened, requiring further treatment. Eighteen remaining hips were thought to have benefited by the treatment. Six femoral heads that had already developed varying degrees of collapse (Ficat Type III) collapsed further (1 to 2 mm), and two round heads (Ficat II) progressed to off-round (Ficat III). This preliminary study suggests that further exploration of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is warranted in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
Eftekhar N. et.al. Hip
 2. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on Steinberg ratings of femoral head osteonecrosis.
             95 Patients with femoral head osteonecrosis met the protocol for treatment of 118 hips with selected pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs). Etiologies included trauma (17), alcohol (9), steroid use (46), sickle cell disease (2), and idiopathy (44). The average age was 38 years, and the average follow-up period since the onset of symptoms was 5.3 years. PEMF treatment had been instituted an average of 4.1 years earlier. By the Steinberg quantitative staging method of roentgenographic analysis, none of the 15 hips in Stages 0-III showed progression, and grading improved in nine of 15. Eighteen of 79 hips (23%) with Stage IV lesions progressed and none improved. In the Stage V category, one of 21 hips (5%) worsened and none improved. Three Stage VI lesions were unchanged. The overall rate of quantified progression for the 118 hips, 87% of which had collapse present when entering the program, was 16%. This value represents a reversal of the percentage of progression reported recently by other investigators using conservative and selected surgical methods. PEMF patients also have experienced long-term improvements in symptoms and signs, together with a reduction in the need for early joint arthroplasty.

Bassett C. et.al. Orthopaedic Hospital, Riverdale, NY Clin Orthop
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
 Impulse magnetic-field therapy for erectile dysfunction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of 3 weeks of pulsing magnetic-field therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). In the active-treatment group, all efficacy endpoints were significantly improved at study end (P < or = .01), with 80% reporting increases in intensity and duration of erection, frequency of genital warmth, and general well-being. Only 30% of the placebo group noted some improvement in their sexual activity; 70% had no change. No side effects were reported.

Pelka R. Et.al. Universitat der Bundeswehr Munchen, Neubiberg/Munich, Germany.

INSOMNIA
Pulsed Magnetic Field Therapy For Insomnia: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

This 4-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of impulse magnetic-field therapy for insomnia. One hundred one patients were randomly assigned to either active treatment (n = 50) or placebo (n = 51) and allocated to one of three diagnostic groups: (1) sleep latency; (2) interrupted sleep; or (3) nightmares. Efficacy endpoints were intensity of sleep latency, frequency of interruptions, sleepiness after rising, daytime sleepiness, difficulty with concentration, and daytime headaches. In the active-treatment group, the values of all criteria were significantly lower at study end (P < .00001). The placebo group also showed significant symptomatic improvement (P < .05), but the differences between groups were highly significant (P < .00001). Seventy percent (n = 34) of the patients given active treatment experienced substantial or even complete relief of their complaints; 24% (n = 12) reported clear improvement; 6% (n = 3) noted a slight improvement. Only one placebo patient (2%) had very clear relief; 49% (n = 23) reported slight or clear improvement; and 49% (n = 23) saw no change in their symptoms. No adverse effects of treatment were reported.

Uni der Bundeswehr Munich, Germany.
PEMF & Electrical Stimulation Research
Research on Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) therapy has proven beyond any reasonable doubt (a moral certainty), that Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) are absent expected or unexpected adverse reactions.

Where pulse repetition rate (frequency measured in Hertz) and magnetic flux density (amplitude measured in Gauss or Tesla) are both within certain parameters, pulsed magnetic field research has proven that PEMF’s are capable of equal or better results than conventional therapies and invasive procedures without side effects or risk of infection. Pulsed electromagnetic field research has proven routinely that PEMF therapy is capable of inducing substantial healing even where conventional medicine has failed.

Beside promoting various healing mechanisms, pulsed electromagnetic field therapy has been found to have substantially beneficial neuroendocrine, neurological and psychological effects; as well as having ability to promote bone, tissue and nerve regeneration.
Several hundred pulsed electromagnetic field therapy citations contained in our research bibliographies are linked directly to PubMed a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the U.S. National Institutes of Health.
Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields: Studies with Microorganisms.
Five bacteria and one yeast were grown in magnetic fields of 50-900 gauss with frequencies of 0-0.3 HZ and square, triangular, or sine waveform. Growth of these microorganisms could be stimulated or inhibited depending upon the field strength and frequency of the pulsed magnetic field. Spore germination and mutation frequency were unaffected by the magnetic fields used in this study.
  
Moore R. Can J Microbiol
PEMF Data Collection and Analysis
Eighty-five patient records were reviewed retrospectively to determine the status of lumbar spinal fusion in patients who had undergone surgery of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and/or by a posterolateral (PL) approach, and received postoperative therapy with a noninvasive device that generated pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). Sixty-six patients (77.6%) had risk factors associated with a poor prognosis for healing, including smoking, prior back surgery, multiple spinal levels fused, diabetes millitus, and obesity. Roentgenographic and clinical evidence indicated that all but two patients achieved successful fusion. The characteristics of these two patients were age 40-55 years, 1 male and 1 female, both were smokers, 1 primary fusion and 1 revision fusion, and both patients underwent single-level PLIF using autogenous graft. After the treatment, seven (8%) patients reported no change in level of pain, but the remainder (92%) reported that pain decreased by one to three levels. Of the 83 patients with successful spinal fusion, 29 (34.9%) were assessed as “excellent,” 45 (54.2%) as “good,” 3 (3.6%) as “fair,” and 6 (7.2%) as “poor.” Adjunctive treatment with PEMF appeared effective in promoting spinal fusion following PLIF or PL procedures across all patient subgroups.

Richard A. Silver, M.D. Tucson Orthopaedic & Fracture Surgery Associates, Ltd., Tucson, AZ.

Disease applications
Research on microcurrent therapy with the Electro Acuscope/Myopulse

1. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics Vol 54, No. 1, page 23-24, 2002.
"Pilot Study of Impedance-Controlled Microcurrent Therapy for Managing Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients", Jeffrey P. Shafer MD. & Arlene J. Lennox, Ph.D. 



2. Acupuncture and Electro Therapeutics Reseach Int. Vol 14, page 43-60 1989.
"Accelerated Healing of Skin Ulcers by Electrical Stimulation and the Physiological Mechanisms Involved" by Mark C. Biedeback Phd. Associate Professor of Physiology Dept. of Anatomy and Physiology California State Univerity, Long Beach CA. 



3.Medical Acupuncture, Spring/Summer 2002- Vol.12, No.2 Case Report.

"Feedback Modulated Microcurrent in Acupuncture Treatments" by William P. Braun MD. 

Disease applications
Research on microcurrent therapy with the Electro Acuscope/Myopulse

1. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics Vol 54, No. 1, page 23-24, 2002.
"Pilot Study of Impedance-Controlled Microcurrent Therapy for Managing Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients", Jeffrey P. Shafer MD. & Arlene J. Lennox, Ph.D. 



2. Acupuncture and Electro Therapeutics Reseach Int. Vol 14, page 43-60 1989.
"Accelerated Healing of Skin Ulcers by Electrical Stimulation and the Physiological Mechanisms Involved" by Mark C. Biedeback Phd. Associate Professor of Physiology Dept. of Anatomy and Physiology California State Univerity, Long Beach CA. 



3.Medical Acupuncture, Spring/Summer 2002- Vol.12, No.2 Case Report.

"Feedback Modulated Microcurrent in Acupuncture Treatments" by William P. Braun MD. 

Disease applications
Magnetotherapy is a relatively new, nowadays however, relatively widespread method in several medical disciplines. The mechanism proper of the favorable action of the pulsed magnetic field on the living organism is not quite clear so far, clinical investigations revealed, however, a favorable anti-inflammatory, angioedematous and analgesic therapeutic effect. The authors sought an optimal frequency of the pulsed magnetic field with regard to the character of the disease. They focused attention above all on treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions of the locomotor apparatus, ischaemia of the blood vessels of the lower extremities, dyspeptic syndrome, lactation mastitis and other diseases. One therapeutic cycle lasted 20 minutes, the mean number of cycles varied between 5.8 and 7.7. A regression of complaints was recorded as a rule after 2-3 sessions. The optimal frequency of the pulsed magnetic field seems to be a value between 10.0 and 25.0 Hz. It is useful in particular in severe conditions to repeat the therapeutic cycle after 2-3 months. The advantage of this therapeutic method is the minimal number of contraindications.

Navratil, L. et.al. Czech Republic

Read the study directly on the links below:

NASA Report of PEMF Benefits:
PEMF Study on Accelerated Healing:
PEMF for Breast Cancer Study:
PEMF for Osteoarthritis Study:









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